Dictionary of Mathematical Games, Puzzles and Amusements by Harry E. Eiss

By Harry E. Eiss

This dictionary offers a tantalizing number of paradoxes, video games, difficulties, and puzzles
that will attract arithmetic fans at each point of talent. Eiss introduces his topic
with an outline of the background of leisure arithmetic and its relation to a couple theoretical questions
that have occupied mathematicians for hundreds of years.
Dictionary entries contain difficulties posed by way of specific thinkers in addition to conventional puzzlers
that have come all the way down to us anonymously. details at the origins and historical past of the various actions
is provided.

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5 1 750) and the date is placed repeatedly over the message : 5 1 75 05 1 7 Keep i t up The letters are then shifted deeper into the alphabet the number of spaces indi­ cated by the number above each of them in tum (e . g . , K P, E F, E L, P U , and so on) . A key word cipher is a substitution cipher where a key word is chosen and placed at the beginning of the alphabet to begin the shift of letters : = = = = Money = key word ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ MONEY ABCDFGHIJ KLPQRSTUVWXZ The Shadow's code is a substitution code where circles with lines in them are substituted for letters of the alphabet .

C::;, � c::> - � - �, '1 �%c::::. � m, - �0 - � <:> � c::o � I� ;/ - % � eo 'i;// % . 3 � � Z2.. 0 Z l �� � 1 <; � � {8 � % ,/' 11 � '� , ,, � I S- � 1 <1- �/, 1 3 1 2- % " � /I- (0 � � /, q � '� � 5 /'/ to ,� 0 8 � 1 � � y, Z � I LI � 0 3 � � The black pieces are placed on squares 1 - 1 2 , the white pieces on squares 2 1 32 . Black moves first . The pieces are moved forward diagonally one space at a time . If an opponent's piece is blocking a move and the square beyond that piece is vacant , the piece must be captured by jumping over it to the vacant square beyond .

Start with the queen on D , the starting place for the white queen in a standard chess set­ up, and move the queen the farthest distance possible ( measurable i n i nches , not squares) in five move s . The queen may not cross her own path or visit the same square twice . (This is one of the most common of the queen problems; Ball also includes it in his Mathematical Recreations and Essays. 3 . Start the queen on cell B and pass through every cell only once in fifteen moves , ending on cell C .

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