By Johanna Mattissen
Dependent-Head Synthesis in Nivkh has been offered a prize of the Offermann-Hergarten Donation on the college of Cologne in 2004. The endowments are granted for awesome leading edge and comprehensibly documented research.This e-book bargains an cutting edge method of 3 interlaced subject matters: a scientific research of the morphosyntatic association of Nivkh (Paleosiberian); a cross-linguistic research of advanced noun types (parallel to complicated (polysynthetic) verb forms); and a typology of polysynthesis. Nivkh (Gilyak) is linguistically striking due to its hugely complicated notice types, either verbs and nouns. they're shaped productively from advert hoc concatenation of lexical roots in based — head family members with out additional morphological marking: fundamental item — predicate, characteristic - noun, noun — relational morpheme ("adposition"). After an in-depth exam of the wordhood of such complexes the morphological kind of Nivkh is explored opposed to the history of polysynthesis, noun incorporation, verb root serialization, noun complexes and head/dependent marking. For this goal, a brand new delimitation and type of polysynthesis is proposed at the foundation of an review of seventy five languages. in addition to contributing to a reconciliation of prior diametrically antagonistic methods to polysynthesis, this learn demanding situations a few universal preconceived notions with recognize to how languages "should be".
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Extra info for Dependent-Head Synthesis in Nivkh: A Contribution to a Typology of Polysynthesis
Cries" t'eḍ "(bird) sings" pḍ "sth- bends" c'eḍ "sth. dries up" keḍ "sth. o. is emaciated" qoḍ "sth. o. sleeps" c. o. o. o. o. o. o. o. o. o. o. hauls in (the net)" There are a small number of (simple) fricative-initial nouns, including loanwords and derivations from verbs. o. ") raq "rice" ře "door" zaq "titmouse" seta "sugar" yemus "cover, case" xeva "cord" ʁar "wasp" χaza "scissors" The initial consonant change to be described below is only observed with plosive-initial nouns, not with fricative-initial (and sonant-initial) ones (cf.
O. o. o. o. o. o. o. hooks sth. o. " Onomatopoetic morphemes, which are generally used as interjections in reduplicated form or predicatively with the auxiliary haḑ "be so", serve as the derivational basis for verbs as well (cf. Panfilov 1965:14-15, 36, 199-204; Gruzdeva 1998:30, 37). (59) (Panfilov 1965:14) ŋox ŋox (grunting sound) → ŋoyŋoyḑ"sth. o. o. 7 Syntax Nivkh is a head-marking SOV language (in the sense of Nichols 1986) with a fairly consistent final predicate position. All dependents precede their heads, and syntax is or ganized according to a S/A pivot.
1). P'OR-long-board "my long board" (kəla- "long") The alternation of plosive-initial intransitive verbs is analogous to the alternation of nouns, as will be shown below. We now turn to the morphophonemic processes which dominate the Nivkh lan guage, consonant alternation, final fricative devoicing, /h/ elision, vowel epenthesis and harmony, as well as nasal elision, a diachronic process whose results still play an impor tant role in the Amur dialect. 6. Morphophonemic processes occur in a number of well-defined contexts, which are treated in detail below.