By Holger Diessel
All languages have demonstratives, yet their shape, which means and use differ significantly around the languages of the realm. This publication provides the 1st huge- scale research of demonstratives from a cross-linguistic and diachronic viewpoint. The first a part of the booklet analyzes demonstratives from a synchronic standpoint, analyzing their morphological constructions, semantic good points, syntactic capabilities, and pragmatic makes use of in spoken and written discourse. the second one half concentrates on diachronic matters, specifically at the improvement of demonstratives into grammatical markers. throughout languages demonstratives offer a widespread historic resource for sure articles, relative and 3rd individual pronouns, nonverbal copulas, sentence connectives, directional preverbs, concentration markers, expletives, and plenty of different grammatical markers. The publication describes different mechanisms wherein demonstratives grammaticalize and argues that the evolution of grammatical markers from demonstratives is crucially certain from different situations of grammaticalization.
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Additional resources for Demonstratives: Form, Function, and Grammaticalization
3) Kiowa (Watkins 1984: 189, 189, 190) a. ’ b. ’ SEMANTICS c. ’ Finally, Inuktitut has a deictic prefix which indicates that the deictic center has been shifted from the speaker to another person in the speech situation. Demonstratives that are marked by this prefix refer to a location relative to the person to which the deictic center has been shifted. Compare the following two examples: (4) Inuktitut (Denny 1982: 362, 362) a. there-to ‘up there from my perspective’ (speaker’s perspective) b.
Creider and Tapsubei Creider 1989: 40; Noonan 1992: 86), but they seem to use the term suffix in a broad sense subsuming all bound forms including enclitics. Among other things, suffixes and enclitics differ in their syntactic behavior: while suffixes are associated with a specific word, enclitics are attached to a phrase (cf. 6 Although the distinction between suffixes and enclitics is theoretically well defined, it is empirically often difficult to decide whether an (adnominal) demonstrative is bound to a word or a phrase.
His hypothesis is primarily based on data from colloquial German. There are two expressions in colloquial German that one might consider demonstratives: dies and stressed das. Dies is almost always used adnominally, but das can be both an independent pronoun and a modifier of a cooccurring noun. Dies and das do not contrast deictically: both forms may occur with proximal and distal meaning. g. das da ‘this/that there’, das Haus da ‘this/that house there’). 8 He shows that dies serves the same pragmatic functions as demonstratives that are deictically contrastive.