Conscription and Democracy: The Draft in France, Great by George Q. Flynn

By George Q. Flynn

Finding the manpower to shield democracy has been a routine challenge. Russell Weigley writes: The old preoccupation of the Army's idea in peacetime has been the manpower query: how, in an unmilitary kingdom, to muster sufficient numbers of able squaddies fast may still battle happen. while the character of recent war made an all-volunteer military insufficient, the foremost Western democracies faced the difficulty of involuntary army provider in a unfastened society. The middle of this manuscript matters tools during which France, nice Britain, and the USA solved the matter and why a few strategies have been extra lasting and powerful than others. Flynn demanding situations traditional knowledge that means that conscription used to be inefficient and that it promoted inequality of sacrifice.

Sharing comparable yet no longer exact diplomatic outlooks, the 3 nations mentioned the following have been allies in international wars and within the chilly conflict, and so they faced the matter of utilizing conscripts to protect colonial pursuits in an age of decolonization. those societies relaxation upon democratic ideas, and working a draft in a democracy increases a number of distinct difficulties. a specific pressure develops due to adopting compelled army carrier in a polity in response to suggestions of person rights and freedoms. regardless of the protest and inconsistencies, the feedback and waste, Flynn finds that conscription served the 3 Western democracies good in an historic context, proving powerful in amassing scuffling with males and permitting a flexibility to manage and alter as difficulties arose.

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18. Feldman, “An Illusion of Power,” II: 88, 94; Adams & Poirier, Conscription, pp. 10–11. See also Michael Pearlman, To Make Democracy Safe for America: Patricians and Preparedness in the Progressive Era (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1984). 19. Feldman, “An Illusion of Power,” II: 88, 91, 94, 147; Adams & Poirier, Conscription, pp. 10–11. 20. Richard D. Challener, The French Theory of the Nation in Arms, 1866– 1939 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1955), p. 8. 21. Institut des Hautes E´tudes de De´fense Nationale (IHEDN), 121st reg.

Tricot, “Dossier,” p. 979; Zaniewicki, “Un Centenaire,” p. 1128; SIRPA, dossier SN, p. 2; Challener, French Theory, p. 60. 39. Bond, “Demography,” p. 197; Challener, French Theory, pp. 79–80. 40. Maurice Larkin, France since the Popular Front: Government and People 1936–1986 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988), p. 36. 41. Clifford-Vaughan, “Changing Attitudes,” p. 346. 42. , pp. 343–345. 43. , p. 342; quote in Challener, French Theory, p. 36; quote in Zaniewicki, “Un Centenaire,” pp. 1130–1131. 44.

37 Despite these controls, on 13 December 1917 a cabinet committee reported shortages for the armed services at between 500,000 and 600,000 men and for industry at 100,000 immediately and 400,000 in future. The committee jejunely recommended that the command in France operate in ways to reduce casualties. 38 By now, however, American intervention had turned the tide, and the war was won by November. In the beginning of the war the British army, including reserves and territorial forces (a local militia) totaled 733,514.

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