By Raja Rizwan Hussain, Muhammad Wasim, Saeed Hasan
This booklet information the research and layout of excessive upward thrust constructions for gravity and seismic research. It presents the data structural engineers have to retrofit present buildings which will meet security standards and higher hinder power harm from such failures as earthquakes and fires.
Coverage contains real case reviews of present constructions, stories of present wisdom for damages and their mitigation, protecting layout applied sciences, and analytical and computational innovations. This monograph additionally offers an experimental research at the homes of fiber bolstered concrete that comprises typical fibres like coconut coir and likewise metal fibres which are used for comparability in either general energy Concrete (NSC) and excessive energy Concrete (HSC). furthermore, the authors research using a number of fix thoughts for broken excessive upward thrust constructions.
The ebook may help upcoming structural layout engineers examine the pc aided research and layout of actual current excessive upward push constructions by utilizing ACI code for software of the gravity a lot, UBC- ninety seven for seismic research and retrofitting research by means of desktop versions. it is going to be of giant use to the coed group, academicians, experts and training specialist engineers and scientists all in favour of the making plans, layout, execution, inspection and supervision for the correct retrofitting of buildings.
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Additional info for Computer Aided Seismic and Fire Retrofitting Analysis of Existing High Rise Reinforced Concrete Buildings
Torsion is found to be the major problem, which caused some of the beams over, stressed. 14. By changing the orientation of the column this problem has been removed successfully. 15. After assigning the cross-sections as per calculation (step 12), the building is designed for gravity loads. 16. Several trials are made until we got the ﬁnal beam and column sizes. 17. The bending, torsion and rebar percentage have been found under control. 18. Typical Column sizes are as follows; • • • • • • CA = 10 × 24 inch2 CB = 12 × 30 inch2 CC = 15 × 30 inch2 CD = 15 × 36 inch2 CE = 18 × 36 inch2 CF = 24 × 36 inch2 19.
Like live loads, environmental loads at any given time are uncertain both in magnitude and distribution. R. 1007/978-94-017-7297-6_4 23 24 4 Structural Evaluation for Gravity Loads Earthquake load is a type of load that is acting in the lateral direction on the structure. UBC 97 code is used for the analysis of earthquake loads. In this chapter the design of gravity loads will be discussed in detail and the analysis for lateral loads will be discussed in the later chapter. 2 Building Description The structure that is taken under study is a reinforced concrete structure.
Exception: When the soil properties are not known in sufﬁcient detail to determine the soil proﬁle type, Type SD shall be used. Soil Proﬁle Type SE or SF need not be assumed unless the building ofﬁcial determines that Type SE or SF may be present at the site or in the event that Type SE or SF is established by geotechnical data. 3 5 Seismic Analysis Soil Proﬁle Type Soil Proﬁle Types SA, SB, SC, SD and SE are deﬁned in Table 16-J and Soil Proﬁle Type SF is deﬁned as soils requiring site-speciﬁc evaluation as follows: 1.