Code Biology: A New Science of Life by Marcello Barbieri

By Marcello Barbieri

The genetic code seemed in the world on the foundation of lifestyles, and the codes of tradition arrived virtually 4 billion years later. for a very long time it's been assumed that those are the single codes that exist in Nature, and if that have been precise we might need to finish that codes are outstanding exceptions that seemed in simple terms initially and on the finish of the heritage of lifestyles. in fact, a number of different natural codes were chanced on some time past few many years and it really is most probably that extra will come to gentle sooner or later. The lifestyles of many natural codes in Nature is accordingly an experimental truth, but additionally greater than that. it really is a type of evidence that experience remarkable implications. during this publication it's proven that the genetic code used to be a precondition for the beginning of the 1st cells, the sign transduction codes divided the 1st cells into 3 basic kingdoms (Archaea, micro organism and Eukarya), the splicing codes have been instrumental to the foundation of the eukaryotic nucleus, the histone code supplied a brand new law approach in eukaryotic genomes, and the cytoskeleton codes allowed the Eukarya to accomplish inner hobbies, together with these of mitosis and meiosis. it's proven, in addition, that natural codes had a key position in multicellular lifestyles, particularly within the starting place of animals, the beginning of brain and the starting place of language. the nice occasions of macroevolution, in different phrases, have been linked to the looks of latest natural codes, and we will be able to simply comprehend why. the reason being new code brings into life whatever that hasn't ever existed sooner than since it creates arbitrary institutions, relationships that aren't made up our minds via actual necessity. one other extraordinary implication is the truth that codes contain which means and we'd like consequently to introduce in biology, with the normal tools of technological know-how, not just the idea that of organic info but in addition that of organic that means. The learn on organic codes, in end, is bringing to gentle new mechanisms in evolution and new basic ideas in technology. This examine is the sector of Code Biology, the research of all codes of existence, from the genetic code to the codes of tradition, from the starting place of existence to the foundation of guy.

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Precisely because they represent what we observe. ). ). The choice of the observables is the first step in the procedure and the most critical. The movements of planets and stars, for example, can be described with only two observables –space and time– and in that case we get either a Ptolemaic model or a Copernican system. By introducing a third observable – mass – we obtain the laws of motion, universal gravitation and the Newton model of the world. ), but what defines the whole system is the initial number of fundamental observables.

We need a paradigm where biological sequences (organic information) and coding rules (organic meaning) are real and fundamental entities of Nature, as real and fundamental as the physical quantities. There is however a massive obstacle that apparently blocks our way on this road: introducing the concept of meaning in biology seems equivalent to reintroducing the old spectre of vitalism, and this is something that biologists simply are not prepared to consider. But is that true? Is the concept of organic meaning really incompatible with the good old-fashioned mechanism that lies at the heart of the scientific method?

Organic information and organic meaning belong precisely to this new type of entities, and we can also give them a suitable name. Since organic information and organic meaning can be described only by naming their components, we can say that they are nominable entities, or that they belongs to the class of the nominable entities of Nature (Barbieri 2004, 2006a, 2008). It must be underlined that the existence of new observables in all living systems is perfectly compatible with physics, because observables are an integral part of physical theory and the discovery of new observable has gone on throughout the history of science.

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