By Thomas Lindemann
Theories at the origins of struggle are frequently in response to the basis that the rational actor is in pursuit of fabric pride, similar to the search for strength or for wealth. those views fail to remember the necessity for homo symbolicus -- which means the protection of a favorable self-image for either emotional and instrumental purposes. a great popularity guarantees authority and fabric assets. Non-recognition could be up to an evidence of conflict as that of alternative explicative 'variables'. the 2 empirical reviews studying the function of non-recognition in nice energy conflicts and in overseas crises reveal the worth of this symbolic procedure.
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38 Thus, empathy assumes ‘sincerity’. In spite of the difficulty in quantifying a notion such as sincerity, a leader’s subjective feeling of being mocked by others fuels conflict. Such was the case, for example, when Colin Powell believed that Iraq was not being ‘honest’ in not 42 causes of war respecting the non-proliferation treaty engagements and by playing cat and mouse with the IAEA; or even when Saddam Hussein himself perceived that a cooperative attitude would not substantially hinder America’s determination to go to war.
Baumeister which reveals that violent personalities are characterised by an imposing self-image and often even by narcissistic features. The author notes in accordance with the logic of the quest for recognition that megalomaniac actors are not in themselves aggressive. They only become aggressive if their hubristic self-image is called into question. They tend ‘to explode’ even if the provocations and the incidents were considered minor by ‘normal’ people (Bushman 1998; Baumeister 2006). the struggle for recognition in international relations 33 This relation between hubristic sensitivities, on the one hand, and aggressiveness on the other hand, is also pointed out by B.
A state despised by a majority of others, such as the regime of Saddam Hussein, is therefore threatened in its survival. Accordingly: Actors that are not recognised, like a slave or an enemy in the state of nature, have no such social production, and so may be killed or violated as one sees fit. (Wendt 2003) Moreover, when a state’s social identity is inadequate, its citizens can be tempted to leave it in order to join or to establish a more developed political entity (see the citizens of ex-GDR).