Billions & Billions: Thoughts on Life and Death at the Brink by Carl Sagan

By Carl Sagan

Within the ultimate publication of his brilliant profession, Carl Sagan brilliantly examines the burning questions of our lives, our international, and the universe round us. those luminous, enjoyable essays go back and forth either the vastness of the cosmos and the intimacy of the human brain, posing such attention-grabbing questions as how did the universe originate and the way will it finish, and the way will we meld technological know-how and compassion to satisfy the demanding situations of the arriving century? the following, too, is a unprecedented, deepest glimpse of Sagan's concepts approximately love, loss of life, and God as he struggled with deadly ailment. Ever forward-looking and colourful with the flicker of his unquenchable interest, Billions & Billions is a testomony to 1 of the nice medical minds of our day.

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Lett. 7, 118–119 (1961) 11. : Upconversion and anti-stokes processes with f and d ions in solids. Chem. Rev. 104, 139–173 (2004) 12. : Mechanism of summation of electronic excitations in activated crystals. Sov. J. Exp. Theor. Phys. Lett. 3, 322–325 (1966) 13. : Upconverting nanoparticles. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 5808–5829 (2011) 14. : Recent advances in design and fabrication of upconversion nanoparticles and their safe theranostic applications. Adv. Mater. 25, 3758–3779 (2013) 15. : NIR luminescent nanomaterials for biomedical imaging.

B Reprinted with the permission from Ref. [26]. Copyright 2005 American Chemical Society. c–e Reprinted with the permission from Ref. [24]. Copyright 2006 American Chemical Society. f, g Reprinted with the permission from Ref. [45]. Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society. h–j Reprinted with the permission from Ref. [37]. Copyright 2005 Nature Publishing Group. k Reprinted with the permission from Ref. [56]. Copyright 2012 American Chemical Society. l Reprinted with the permission from Ref. [57].

Furthermore, such d metals have spectroscopically active states that are strongly influenced by the local crystal field, allowing for chemical variation of the photophysical characteristics such as the energy levels, excited-state dynamics and lifetimes, multi-phonon relaxation rates, and electron–phonon interaction strengths [24]. Recent developments indicate that several TM ions are also suitable for multi-photon excitation, and sometimes show properties different from those of the lanthanide ions, including the increased likelihood of encountering broad ligandfield-dependent excited-state features and strict spin selection rules [8, 47].

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