Beyond the Market: The EU and National Social Policy by David Hine, Hussein Kassim

By David Hine, Hussein Kassim

This booklet considers the level to which the ecu has impacted at the formation and content material of social and environmental coverage within the member states, targeting the 4 higher individuals: Germany, France, Italy and the united kingdom.

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International regulatory failure occurs when one or more of these conditions are not satisfied. For example, it is usually difficult to observe whether intergovernmental regulatory agreements are kept or not. This is because much economic and social regulation is discretionary. Because regulators lack information that only regulated firms have, and because governments for political reasons are reluctant to impose excessive cost on industry, bargaining is an essential feature of the process of regulatory enforcement.

A good deal of ‘copinage technocratique’ develops between Commission officials and national experts interested in discovering pragmatic solutions rather than defending political positions (Eichener 1992). By the time a Commission proposal reaches the Council of Ministers all the technical details have been worked out and modifications usually leave the essentials untouched. In part, this is because although the Council with its working groups can monitor the activities of the Commission, it cannot complete with the expertise at the disposal of the Commission and its Directorates (Peters 1992:119).

The remaining resources are insufficient to support large-scale initiatives in areas like industrial policy, energy, research or technological innovation. Hence, the only way for the Commission to increase its role is to expand the scope of regulatory activities, even beyond the functional requirements of the common market. As we saw in the preceding section, this strategy has been remarkably, some would say too, successful, but the reasons for the success cannot be found only in the preferences of the Commission.

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