Baum's Textbook of Pulmonary Diseases by James D. Crapo, Jeffrey L. Glassroth, Joel B. Karlinsky,

By James D. Crapo, Jeffrey L. Glassroth, Joel B. Karlinsky, Talmadge E. King

Since its first booklet in 1965, this article has been the definitive medical ebook within the box. Written by way of greater than a hundred overseas specialists, the focal point is at the medical elements of treating pulmonary disorder. The textual content is evidence-based and whole of sensible examples. Chapters are hugely based to supply easy access to info. The 7th variation has been condensed right into a unmarried concise but entire volume.

A Brandon-Hill instructed title.

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Example text

The normal human alveolus has a diameter of about 225 µm and a surface area of 120,000 µm2; it is made up of 148 endothelial cells, 106 interstitial cells, and 107 epithelial cells (types I and II) and contains 12 alveolar macrophages. The comparative cellular anatomy of an average alveolus from the mouse to the human is shown in Fig. 15. The relative cell composition of the alveolar septa is similar across species. The larger alveoli of larger species are generally contain more cells of the same average size rather than larger cells.

CENTRAL RESPIRATORY NEURONS The precise organization of the central respiratory neurons is still a matter of contention. Although there may be respiratory pacemaker cells in which spontaneous changes in transmembrane potential occur, in the intact system, the respiratory rhythm depends on interconnections between different respiratory neurons. Because breathing is preserved in anesthetized animals even after removal of the brain rostral to the pons, it is believed that the neurons on which respiratory rhythm critically depends are located in the bulbopontine region.

The activity of these neurons is related to postinspiration inspiratory activity (PIIA), which occurs in the diaphragm and intercostal and laryngeal muscles and retards expiratory flow and the rate of lung deflation. Ventral Respiratory Group The VRG in the medulla comprises several anatomically and probably functionally distinct populations (Fig. 1). One classification divides the neurons of the VRG into three aggregates: the nucleus retroambigualis (NRA), the nucleus para-ambigualis (NPA), and the nucleus retrofacialis (NRF).

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