Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X by Walter Tape

By Walter Tape

Published through the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Special courses Series.

Atmospheric halos are noticeable phenomena of a lot good looks and fascination. From our earliest recognized files, courting from the Sumerian-Babylonian tradition of 4-5,000 years in the past, to fashionable researchers, halos have stored us taking a look skyward. because of gentle refracted via ice crystals floating within the surroundings, they could look at approximately any time and position. What do the ice crystals appear like, in particular those who make the unique "odd radius" halos? what's the worth of the elusive attitude x, so serious to making a choice on the shapes of those crystals? What halo screens can we comprehend good and what monitors will we no longer comprehend at all?

This publication responds to such questions, and extra, with a multifaceted view of halo technological know-how. specialists and newbies alike will locate this publication the definitive source at the topic. good points include:

  • The "how to" in halo statement and photography
  • Carefully analyzed images of infrequent halo monitors and pyramidal ice crystals
  • The early heritage of halo science
  • Elegant new factors of ways halos form
  • Authoritative dialogue of wierd radius halos

We invite you to gaze up and observe the area of halos.

Chapter 1 advent (pages 1–8):
Chapter 2 Ice Crystal Gallery (pages 9–20):
Chapter three The Beginnings of Halo technological know-how (pages 21–32):
Chapter four How Halos shape (pages 33–42):
Chapter five Halo Simulations (pages 43–50):
Chapter 6 Halos From Prismatic Crystals (pages 51–64):
Chapter 7 abnormal Radius Halos are actual (pages 65–70):
Chapter eight unusual Radius round Halos (pages 71–89):
Chapter nine a few Crystallography (pages 91–100):
Chapter 10 Pyramidal Ice Crystals (pages 101–112):
Chapter eleven the hunt for perspective x (pages 113–128):
Chapter 12 Refraction Halos and Wedge attitude (pages 129–132):
Chapter thirteen The Spin Vector (pages 133–136):
Chapter 14 A User's advisor to Halo Poles (pages 137–144):
Chapter 15 atypical Radius Plate Arcs (pages 145–164):
Chapter sixteen unusual Radius Column Arcs (pages 165–178):
Chapter 17 ordinary Radius Parry Arcs (pages 179–182):
Chapter 18 different Wedge Angles? (pages 183–194):

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Additional resources for Atmospheric Halos and the Search for Angle X

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Crystals with P a r r y orientations are more severely constrained t h a n are those with column orientations. Whereas a crystal in column orientation is free to rotate b o t h about its own axis a n d about t h e vertical axis, a crystal in P a r r y orientation can only r o t a t e about t h e vertical axis. 6. 8. Most of t h e halos identified in t h e £ = 20° simulation can be seen in t h a t display. 8; we ignored t h e m earlier, in t h e interests of simplicity. , halos from column orientations), since, as for plate arcs, t h e set of responsible crystal orientations is one-dimensional rather t h a n two-dimensional.

T h e deviation A b e t w e e n the incoming and outgoing rays varies from 0° u p w a r d . {Middle) Same but w i t h the addition of an o p a q u e cylindrical core. Now A varies from 22° upward, w i t h the densest concentration of rays at 22°. [Right) S a m e but showing only the least deviated ray together w i t h a sun ray reaching the observer. T h e observer looks in a direction A = 22° to the right of the sun to see the inner edge of the parhelion. 24 ATMOSPHERIC HALOS E d m e Mariotte was t h e first t o a t t r i b u t e halos t o prismatic ice crystals.

B u t whenever you can manage t o have sunlit crystals below you, look for t h e subsun. It is just a bright spot below the sun, exactly as far below t h e horizon as t h e sun is above it. 7, which shows how t h e circumzenith arc is formed. Now two spheres are 40 ATMOSPHERIC HALOS exit normal entry normal FIGURE 4 . 7 Light point diagram for the circumzenith arc, s h o w i n g the formation of the arc. 1. T h e halo point H is found by projecting the sun point S to the outer sphere, thus getting R, and then projecting R to the inner sphere, getting H.

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