Ancient Civilizations RL. Almanac by Judson Knight

By Judson Knight

Presents old info and interpretation on historical civilizations in Egypt, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, China, Africa, Israel, and somewhere else.

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It exerted a huge influence over Greece and Rome. Out of Greek and Roman civilizations ultimately came the cultures of Europe and the nations influenced by those cultures—including the United States. 1 N A S I A Med it e rrane a n Se a Nile Delta Lower Egypt Giza SINAI Cairo PENINSULA 0 le Ni AFRICA 200 kilometers 400 400 ARABIAN PENINSULA R. Upper Egypt S A H A R A miles 200 0 Memphis Aswan First Cataract Re ea dS Second Cataract Third Cataract Area under Egyptian control Ancient coastline Ancient city Great Pyramid Sphinx Cataract (rapids) Fourth Cataract Fifth Cataract Khartoum Sixth Cataract White Nile R.

But the pyramids would not have been possible without the establishment of a strong central government that commanded the willing submission of its subjects. One misconception many people have about the building of the pyramids was that it was done by slave labor; in fact the vast majority of workers on these enormous projects participated of their own free will. A large portion of them were farmers who worked during the Nile’s summer floods, and they received food and shelter (the Egyptians did not use money as such) in return for their labor.

A dead body, however, will rapidly decompose if simply left to decay; therefore the Egyptians developed a means to preserve the bodies, a process called mummification. Mummification involves embalming, a chemical process meant to preserve a corpse, or dead body. Embalming is still practiced in modern funeral homes. The Egyptians, because they intended for corpses to last for centuries, made an art of the embalming process. ” Morticians, or mortuary workers, believed they were guided by the god Anubis.

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