By M. Getzner
Equipment for elevating know-how of ways human’s price the surroundings variety from financial valuation via to bigger public participation in judgements. during this book a staff of foreign specialists discover leading edge choices that are seriously evaluated and in comparison. classes are drawn from either the successes and screw ups of alternative techniques. Case experiences deal with a large choice of leading edge environmental difficulties from agro-forestry and wetlands to weather switch, biodiversity and genetically transformed organisms.
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Extra info for Alternatives for Environmental Evaluation (Routledge Explorations in Environmental Economics)
Some of the people may be homo œconomicus all of the time, all of the people may be homo œconomicus some of the time, but all of the people are never homo œconomicus all of the time. In environmental valuation, rejection of the economic motive for behaviour is common and this cannot be disregarded purely on pragmatic grounds. In the past, the counter to critiques of CBA has often been that ‘there is no option’ and that ‘because society uses a money metric, so must environmentalists’. The treasury departments of government are certainly often the strongest and lie behind many decisions, but there are also other branches of government and civil society, and different forums in which decision processes operate.
While Boulding in principle acknowledges the role and importance of CBA in the evaluation of social choice and even social institutions, he admits that two fundamental problems arise out of the concept of CBA: one which he rejects is the inclusion of ‘benevolence’ and ‘malevolence’ in CBA (selfishness, altruism) which can in principle be included in interdependent utility functions. What might be ‘fundamental and harder to repulse’ is the notion of a ‘heroic ethic’ (Boulding 1969: 9), which cannot be included in CBA because a typical trade-off (and willingness to trade) does not exist.
By conservative wording of the questionnaire or incentive-compatible auction designs), ‘there does not appear to be a close substitute for The Real Thing’ (Cummings et al. 1995a; see also the discussion in Blackburn et al. 1994, who deliver methods for ‘correcting’ results from surveys to account for hypothetical bias if the distribution of error due to the bias is systematic). Cummings et al. (1995b) and Harrison (1996) report a number of approaches to reduce the hypothetical bias in CVM surveys by directly addressing this problem in the entire survey situation.