Adaptive Analog VLSI Neural Systems by M. Jabri, R.J. Coggins, B.G. Flower

By M. Jabri, R.J. Coggins, B.G. Flower

amplitude ~---. -----. -----. -----,-----. -----,-,~ VfT:j·" four. 50 four. 00 three. 50 q . three. 00 /'\. ~ -'" : ! . 2. 50 ,: \ . . . 1! -. i "'" " 2. 00 1. 50 ··GO··O_O_ ,-. . . . &. , . ; D Q . " . . . / 1. 00 zero. 50 zero. 00 L. -----1. . ---. . l. -----:-:::''"::-::--::-::-'-:::-::------=--::-'-::-:=---=-=""=_:' five. 00 10. 00 15. 00 determine 7. 1 The morphology of ST and VT retrograde 1:1. © 1995 IEEE [Coggins, labri, Flower and Pickard {1995}]. ing to the analog area. also, using differential pair multipliers and present node summing within the community permits a min­ imum of units within the community itself and for that reason linked discount rates in strength and zone. even if, within the previous few a long time analog sign processing has been used sparingly end result of the results of machine off­ units, noise and drift*. The neural community structure alleviates those difficulties to a wide quantity in view that it truly is either hugely parallel and adaptive. the truth that the community is expert to acknowledge morphologies with the analog circuits in-loop implies that the synaptic weights might be tailored to cancel equipment offsets [Castro, Tam and Holler (1993); Castro and candy (1993)]. The influence of neighborhood un correlated noise is diminished through the parallelism of * so much fabrication methods were optimised for electronic layout ideas which ends up in terrible analog performance.

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4 Complementary MOSFETs So far, the basic theory has been developed around the normallyoff nMOS enhancement transistor. There are three other types of interest - a normally-on nMOS device (the depletion transistor) and the two corresponding p-channel transistors. Depletion-mode devices are not dealt with here and are not available in most fabrication technologies. But the pMOS enhancement transistor, whose channel current is carried by holes, is equally important as the nMOS device. 6 shows, the structure and circuit symbol are the complements of the nMOS case and the characteristic equations also take the same form, with appropriate sign changes.

8. The noise corner frequency, where the contributions from conduction and flicker noise are equal occurs typically at higher frequencies in MOS circuits than bipolar circuits and is commonly in the 1000-5000 Hz range. 17) show that the designer has some control over noise performance through the choice of W / L and bias currents, but it is also the case that some process technologies produce lower noise devices than others. 8 Typical noise output of an MOS transistor. 6 Circuit models of MOSFETs The results of the previous sections can now be brought together into a set of small-signal circuit models which provide first-order predictions of performance for analog circuits and which also provide insight into the effects of design choices on performance.

2), which is a common circuit element for multipliers, comparators and amplifiers. As the size of the transistors is increased the impact of gain mismatch due to lithography errors is reduced and hence the input voltage offsets are reduced. Another example of device level area trade-off, is the sizing of a storage capacitor for storing analog voltages, as may be found in some synapse designs. Here the precision of voltage that may be stored increases with the size of the capacitance due to the improved signal to noise ratio of the storage device.

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