By James H. Green
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Additional resources for Access Technologies: DSL and Cable
In the absence of congestion, it opens the window wide. If it is receiving more packets than its buffers can handle, instead of dumping packets (which it is permitted to do), it closes the window, which informs the sending end to throttle back. As mentioned earlier, some applications, such as voice over IP, do not need packet acknowledgment and error checking. Therefore, instead of running under TCP, they run under a much simpler protocol known as User-Datagram Protocol (UDP). UDP greatly reduces the number of overhead (noninformation) bits that are transferred across the network.
HDSL is designed to overcome these limitations. The ILECs have used 58 Access Technologies: DSL and Cable HDSL for years to provide T1/E1 service over two twistedpair wires up to 12,000 ft (4,000 m) long. This enables them to avoid the regenerators that T1/E1 requires, which are expensive and difficult to install on many loops. Terminating equipment is installed both in the central office and at the subscriber’s premises. Unlike other DSL versions, HDSL does not support regular telephone service on a cable pair.
ILECs typically did not lease bare cable pairs until the Telecommunications Act of 1996 required them to make unbundled network elements (UNEs) available at any feasible interconnection point. The interface to the cable pair in the central office is such a point, which makes it feasible for service providers other than the ILECs to provide DSL service. To obtain access, a service provider must register as a CLEC. The CLEC has two alternatives for physical connection to the cable pair. If space is available, it can lease space from the ILEC, install its own DSLAM in the ILEC’s central office, and connect directly to cable pairs.