By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Many nations around the globe block or filter out net content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but additionally in terms of sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for traditional electorate. entry Denied records and analyzes web filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, delivering the 1st conscientiously carried out research of this accelerating pattern. net filtering occurs in at the very least 40 states world wide together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar net content material keep an eye on mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S., and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of world net filtering undertaken through the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for net and Society at Harvard legislations institution, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford net Institute at Oxford college, and the collage of Cambridge) and counting on paintings by means of neighborhood specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, criminal, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from quite a few views. Chapters speak about the mechanisms and politics of net filtering, the strengths and obstacles of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislations, moral concerns for firms that provide states with the instruments for blockading and filtering, and the consequences of net filtering for activist groups that more and more depend upon net applied sciences for speaking their missions. experiences on net content material law in 40 varied international locations stick to, with each one kingdom profile outlining the categories of content material blocked by means of class and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
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Extra info for Access Denied. Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering [censorship]
Org, Bahrain uses DNS tampering that results in an error. com returned a blockpage. There is an apparent two-tiered system in place. They are willing to go on the record as blocking some sites, and not for others. Providing a blockpage informing a user that their choice of Web site is not available by action of the government is still short of providing a rationale for the blocking of that particular site, or providing a means for appealing this decision. Very few countries go this far. A small group of countries, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, and United Arab Emirates, and some ISPs in Iran, allow Internet users to write to authorities to register a complaint that a given Web site has been blocked erroneously.
Summary Measures of Internet Filtering To summarize the results of our work, we have assigned a score to each of the countries we studied. This score is designed to reflect the degree of filtering in each of the four major thematic areas: 1) the filtering of political content, 2) social content, 3) conflict- and securityrelated content, and 4) Internet tools and applications. 5). Pervasive filtering is defined as blocking that spans a number of categories while blocking access to a large portion of related content.
The link between repressive regimes and political filtering follows a clear logic. However, the link between regimes that suppress free expression and social filtering activity is less obvious. Part of the answer may reside in that regimes that tend to filter political content also filter social content. 7 demonstrates that few states restrict their activities to one or two types of content. Once filtering is implemented, it is applied to a broad range of content. These different types of filtering activities are often correlated with each other, and can be used as a pretense for expanding government control of cyberspace.