Access controlled: the shaping of power, rights, and rule in by Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski,

By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain, Miklos Haraszti

Net filtering, censorship of websites, and on-line surveillance are expanding in scale, scope, and class all over the world, in democratic international locations in addition to in authoritarian states. the 1st iteration of web controls consisted principally of creating firewalls at key net gateways; China's recognized ''Great Firewall of China'' is without doubt one of the first nationwide net filtering platforms. this day the recent instruments for web controls which are rising transcend mere denial of data. those new ideas, which objective to normalize (or even legalize) web keep watch over, contain particular viruses and the strategically timed deployment of disbursed denial-of-service (DDoS) assaults, surveillance at key issues of the Internet's infrastructure, take-down notices, stringent phrases of utilization guidelines, and nationwide details shaping suggestions. entry managed stories in this new normative terrain. The publication, a undertaking from the OpenNet Initiative (ONI), a collaboration of the Citizen Lab on the college of Toronto's Munk Centre for overseas reviews, Harvard's Berkman middle for net and Society, and the SecDev team, deals six big chapters that research web keep watch over in either Western and japanese Europe and a piece of shorter local reviews and nation profiles drawn from fabric amassed by means of the ONI all over the world via a mixture of technical interrogation and box examine equipment. Chapter authors: Ronald Deibert, Colin Maclay, John Palfrey, Hal Roberts, Rafal Rohozinski, Nart Villeneuve, Ethan Zuckerman details Revolution and worldwide Politics sequence

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The following are among the more common legal mechanisms being applied: Compelling Internet sites to register with authorities and to use noncompliance as grounds for taking down or filtering ‘‘illegal’’ content, and possibly revoking service providers’ licenses. This tack is effectively used in Kazakhstan and Belarus, and it is currently being considered in Russia. The mechanism is particularly effective because it creates multiple disincentives for potential Web site owners who must go through the hassle of registering with authorities, which leaves them open to legal sanction should their site be deemed to be carrying illegal content.

These institutions are being tied to special Internet connections, which limit access only to resources found in the national Internet domain. These ‘‘national zones’’ are popular among some Tajik and Kazakh ISPs because they allow the ISPs to provide low-cost connectivity, as traffic is essentially limited to the national segment. In 2007, Russian authorities floated the idea of creating a separate Cyrillic cyberzone, with its own domain space and addressing scheme. National cyberzones 28 Ronald Deibert and Rafal Rohozinski are appealing because they strengthen the degree of national control over Internet content.

As reported by ONI field researchers. 25. See the Azerbaijan country profile in this volume. 26. com/article/technologyNews/idCATRE4995D020081010. 27. pdf. 28. net/special/ kg/. 29. ’’ 30. org/2008/06/13/moldavia-destruction-of-personal-computers/. 31. htm. 32. com/essays/2008/august/chinas-guerrilla-war-for-the-web. 33. See the China country profile in this volume. 3 The EU Data Retention Directive in an Era of Internet Surveillance Hal Roberts and John Palfrey Introduction The European Union (EU) enacted a directive on data retention in 2007 that requires all member countries to mandate the retention by telecom companies of the sender, recipient, and time of every Internet or other telecom communication.

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