A Reader in Planning Theory by Andreas Faludi (Eds.)

By Andreas Faludi (Eds.)

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3 . Does the individual believe he can or cannot influence the achievement or a goal ? What are the characteristics of the external value entities ? T h e stock of such things as wealth or health that an individual possesses at any one time, in combination with his internal values, provides a significant basis for planning analysis. An individual's well-being is measured by: (a) his absolute stock of valued entities; (b) divergence of his stock from his own goals (his aspirations) ; and (c) divergence of the stock of valued entities from a level set by others (this is the familiar notion of standards).

If he has chosen the second course, the planner will be required to establish explicit criteria for the definition of groups. 18 Likewise, is management or the stockholder the immediate client in a corporate planning situation? See Dodge vs. , 204 Mich. W. 688. See also, operation research literature, viz. Churchman, AckofT, and Arnoff [8], chap. 1. 19 As documented by Gans [12] and Seeley [25], 24 A Reader in Planning Theory [Part I One such criterion should be to aggregate individuals expected to have similar cost-benefit expectations.

Goals in opposition to the accepted ones, when held by those with significant power, must also be given attention. A middle-range plan (perhaps for a five-year period) provides an opportunity to mesh the extreme points of view regarding societal change which are expressed in the other two plans. Estimates of future conditions can be made with greater assurance than in the long-range plan. There is more accurate knowledge of what may occur under different controlled situations. Alternatives posed in such a five-year plan should be those carrying some commitment to implementation, as opposed to mere intention (such as might set the criterion for inclusion in the long-range plan).

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