21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United by National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs,

By National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka

Spotting potential to innovate and commercialize new high-technology items is more and more a key for the commercial progress within the setting of tighter environmental and source constraints, governments world wide have taken energetic steps to bolster their nationwide innovation structures. those steps underscore the idea of those governments that the emerging bills and hazards linked to new in all probability high-payoff applied sciences, their spillover or externality-generating results and the transforming into international pageant, require nationwide R&D courses to help the ideas by means of new and present high-technology corporations inside of their borders. The nationwide study Council's Board on technological know-how, expertise, and fiscal coverage (STEP) has launched into a research of chosen overseas innovation courses compared to significant U.S. courses. The "21st Century Innovation structures for the us and Japan: classes from a Decade of swap" symposium reviewed govt courses and tasks to help the improvement of small- and medium-sized businesses, government-university- collaboration and consortia, and the influence of the highbrow estate regime on innovation. This booklet brings jointly the papers awarded on the convention and gives a ancient context of the problems mentioned on the symposium.

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Additional info for 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium

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1 New Framework of S&T Policymaking In 1995, Japan enacted the “Basic Law on Science and Technology,” under which the government’s Council for Science and Technology Policy develops the 5-year Science and Technology Basic Plan. The first Plan covered 1996-2000, and two additional plans have followed. Under the first Basic Plan, government spent 17 trillion yen on science and technology during the 1996-2000 period. The Second Plan (2001-2005) called for spending 24 trillion yen, and Third Plan (2006-2010) predicts that the government will spend 25 trillion yen.

6 percent in early 2000s. In semiconductors, in particular, Japanese government funding for R&D consortia in this area had dimmed in the face of trade friction with the United States in the 1980s. S. S. semiconductor producers rebounded, the Japanese semiconductor industry began a decline in the face of intensified global competition. Japan launched a new round of industrial, university, and private R&D consortia (with names like SELETE, STARC, and ASET, see Fujimura and Chuma 2006 for some details) that seemed modeled, in part, on SEMATECH and growing government-industry-university collaborative efforts in the United States (which in turn had been based on the perceived success of the earlier Japanese VLSI efforts)!

Peterson Institute for International Economics. Reform of University Research System ystem in Japan: Where Do They Stand? Ryuji Shimoda Tokyo Institute of Technology 1. 1 Researchers in Universities At the end of March 2005, Japanese universities had 291,000 researchers in all fields, including 190,000 in the natural sciences and engineering. Universities in Japan are classified into three categories: national universities founded by the central government, public universities founded by local governments, and private universities founded by private initiatives.

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